The following discussion and analysis provides information which management believes is relevant to an assessment and understanding of our condensed consolidated results of operations and financial condition. The discussion should be read in conjunction with the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements and notes thereto contained in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. This discussion contains forward-looking statements and involves numerous risks and uncertainties, including, but not limited to, those described in the "Risk Factors" section of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. Actual results may differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements. Unless the context otherwise requires, references to "we", "us", "our", and "the Company" are intended to mean the business and operations of
PLAYSTUDIOS, Inc.and its consolidated subsidiaries. Our actual results and the timing of certain events may differ significantly from the results discussed in the forward-looking statements. Factors that might cause such a discrepancy include, but are not limited to, those discussed in the "Risk Factors" set forth in Part II, Item 1A of this Quarterly Report on Form 10- Q. Allforward-looking statements in this report are based on information available to us as of the date hereof, and we assume no obligation to update any such forward-looking statements to reflect future events or circumstances, except as required by law.
We are a developer and publisher of free-to-play casual games for mobile and social platforms each of which incorporate our unique playAWARDS loyalty program. Over our eleven-year history, we developed a portfolio of free-to-play social casino games that are considered to be among the most innovative and unique in the genre. They include the award-winning POP! Slots, myVEGAS Slots, my KONAMI Slots, myVEGAS Blackjack, myVEGAS Bingo and
MGM Slots Live. Our games are based on original content, real-world slot game content, as well as third-party licensed brands and are downloadable and playable for free on multiple social and mobile-based platforms, including the Apple App Store, Google Play Store, Amazon Appstore, and Facebook. Each of our games is powered by our proprietary playAWARDS program and incorporates loyalty points that are earned by players as they engage with our games. These loyalty points enable our players to earn real-world rewards from a portfolio of entertainment, retail, technology, travel, leisure, and gaming brands across the globe. The rewards are provided by our collection of awards partners, all of whom provide their rewards at no cost to us, in exchange for product integration, marketing support, and participation in our loyalty program. The program is enabled by our playAWARDS platform which consists of a robust suite of tools that enable our awards partners to manage their rewards in real time, measure the value of our players' engagement, and gain insight into the effectiveness and value they derive from the program. Through our self-service platform, awards partners can launch new rewards, make changes to existing offers, and in real time see how players are engaging with their brands. The platform tools also provide awards partners the ability to measure the off-line value our players generate as consumers and patrons of their real-world establishments. PLAYSTUDIOS'playAWARDS platform embodies all of the features, tools, and capabilities needed to deliver loyalty programs tailored for the games industry. Our consumer-facing brand for our loyalty program is myVIP. The myVIP program is an aspirational benefits framework, with in-game mechanics and rewards features, along with a player development and hosting program. The program dynamically ranks and assigns players to tiers based on their accumulation of tier points, which are a proxy for their overall engagement with our games. The tier points are separate from and are not interchangeable with the loyalty points earned in the playAWARDS program. Qualified players are provided access to enhanced benefits that increase with each tier. Higher tiers provide access to a VIP player portal whereby players can view and purchase special chip bundles, redeem loyalty points for a curated set of rewards, and communicate directly with a dedicated personal host. The VIP player portal, concierge, and host programs enhance the in-game and real-world reward experience with both in-game and in-person, invitation-only special events. We believe that the myVIP program drives increased player engagement and retention, and therefore extends each game's life-cycle and revenue potential. We primarily generate our revenue from the sale of virtual currency, which players can choose to purchase at any time to enhance their playing experience. Once purchased, our virtual currency cannot be withdrawn from the game, transferred from one game to another or from one player to another, or be redeemed for monetary value. Players who install our games receive free virtual currency upon the initial launch of the game, and they may also collect virtual currency free of charge at periodic intervals or through targeted marketing promotions. Players may exhaust the free virtual currency and may choose to purchase additional virtual currency. Additionally, players can send free "gifts" of virtual currency to their friends on Facebook. Our revenue from virtual currency has been generated world-wide, but is largely concentrated in North America. 31
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We also generate revenue from in-game advertising. Advertisements can be in the form of an impression, click-throughs, banner ads, or offers, where players are rewarded with virtual currency or loyalty points for watching a short video.
Impact of COVID-19
The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and variants thereof and resulting social distancing, shelter-in-place, quarantine, and similar governmental orders put in place around the world have caused widespread disruption in global economies, productivity, and financial markets and have materially altered the way in which we conduct our day-to-day business. We have followed guidance by the
U.S., Israel, Hong Kong, and other applicable foreign and local governments to protect our employees and operations during the pandemic and have implemented a remote environment for our business. We cannot predict the potential impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic and variants thereof or the distribution of vaccines on our business or operations, but we will continue to actively monitor the related issues and may take further actions that alter our business operations, including as may be required by federal, state, local, or foreign authorities or that we determine are in the best interests of our employees, players, partners, and stockholders. In addition to the potential direct impacts to our business, the global economy has been, and is likely to continue to be, significantly weakened as a result of the actions taken in response to the COVID-19 pandemic and variants thereof, and future government intervention remains uncertain. A weakened global economy may impact our players and their purchasing decisions within our games, in particular as a result of the limitations associated with redeeming real-world rewards due to government-mandated or other restrictions on travel and other activities and limitations on our players' discretionary spending, consumer activity during the pandemic and its impact on advertising investments, and the ability of our business partners, including our awards partners, to navigate this complex social, health, and economic environment, any of which could result in disruption to our business and results of our operations. The duration and extent of the impact from the COVID-19 pandemic and variants thereof depends on future developments that cannot be accurately predicted at this time, such as the severity and transmission rate of the virus, the existence of any additional waves of the COVID-19 pandemic and variants thereof, the extent and effectiveness of containment actions, progress towards widespread rapid testing, effective treatment alternatives, and the success and timing of vaccination efforts, and the impact of these and other factors on our employees, players, and business partners. We have recently observed labor shortages, increasing competition for talent, and increasing employee attrition. If we are not able to respond to and manage the impact of such events effectively, our business may be harmed.
See “Risk Factors” for more information on the COVID-19 pandemic.
Key factors affecting our performance
A number of factors affect the performance of our business and the comparability of our results from period to period, including:
•Third-Party Platform Agreements-We derive a substantial portion of our revenue from in-game purchases of virtual currency that are processed by platform providers such as the
Apple App Store, Google Play Store, Amazon Appstore, and on Facebook. The platform providers charge us a transaction fee to process payments from our players for their purchase of in-game virtual currency. These platform fees are generally set at 30% of the in-game purchase. Each platform provider has broad discretion to set its platform fees and to change and interpret its terms of service and other policies with respect to us and other developers in its sole discretion, and those changes may be unfavorable to us. •Player Acquisition-Establishing and maintaining a loyal network of players and paying players is vital for our success. As such, we spend a significant amount on advertising and other forms of player acquisition, such as traditional marketing and advertising, email and push notifications, and cross promoting between our games in order to grow our player base. These expenditures are generally related to new content launches, game enhancements, and ongoing programs to drive new player acquisition and the reactivation of lapsed player engagement. Our player acquisition strategy is centered on a payback period methodology, and we strive to optimize spend between the acquisition of new players and the reactivation of inactive players. •Player Monetization-Our revenue has been primarily driven through the sale of virtual currency. Paying players purchase virtual currency in our games because of the perceived value, which is dependent on the relative ease of obtaining equivalent virtual currency by simply playing our game. The perceived value of our virtual currency can be impacted by various actions that we take in our games including offering discounts for virtual currency or giving away virtual currency in promotions. Managing game economies is difficult and relies on our assumptions and judgment. If we fail to manage our virtual economies properly or fail to promptly and successfully respond to any such disruption, our 32
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our reputation may suffer and our players may be less likely to play our games and purchase virtual currency from us in the future, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
•Investment in Game Development-In order to maintain interest from existing players and add new players and achieve our desired revenue growth, we must continually improve the content, offers, and features in our existing games, as well as develop and release new games. As a result, we invest a significant amount of our technological and creative resources to ensure that we support an appropriate cadence of innovative content that our players will find appealing. These expenditures generally occur in advance of the release of new content or the launch of a new game, and the resulting revenue may not exceed the development costs, or the game or feature may be abandoned in its entirety. •Investment in our playAWARDS and myVIP programs-In order to drive player engagement and retention we invest a significant amount of resources to enhance the playAWARDS and myVIP programs. We continually evaluate these programs through an iterative feedback process with our players and awards partners and update them so that both our players and awards partners are able to optimize their personalized experience. As a result, we continuously incur expenses to enhance and update these programs. However, the results may not generate revenue and the enhancements may require additional significant modifications or be abandoned in their entirely. •Real-World Rewards-We currently offer real-world rewards relating to, among other things, dining, live entertainment shows, and hotel rooms, and we plan to continue to expand and diversify our rewards loyalty program in order to maintain and enhance the perceived value offering to our players. Our players' willingness to make in-game purchases is directly impacted by our ability to provide desirable rewards. The real-world rewards we offer to our players are provided at no cost to us by our awards partners, and there is no obligation for us to pay or otherwise compensate either our awards partners or players for any player redemptions under our awards partner agreements.
Key Performance Indicators and Non-GAAP Measures
We manage our business by regularly reviewing several key operating metrics to track historical performance, identify trends in player activity, and set strategic goals for the future. Our key performance metrics are impacted by several factors that could cause them to fluctuate on a quarterly basis, such as platform providers' policies, seasonality, player connectivity, and the addition of new content to games. We believe these measures are useful to investors for the same reasons. In addition, we also present certain non-GAAP performance measures. These performance measures are presented as supplemental disclosure and should not be considered superior to or as a substitute for the consolidated financial statements prepared under US GAAP. The non-GAAP measures presented in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q should be read together with the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements and the respective related notes thereto included elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. The key performance indicators and non-GAAP measures presented in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q may differ from similarly titled measures presented by other companies and are not a substitute for financial statements prepared in accordance with US GAAP. Key Performance Indicators Daily Active Users ("DAU") DAU is defined as the number of individuals who played a game on a particular day. We track DAU by the player ID, which is assigned for each game installed by an individual. As such, an individual who plays two different games on the same day is counted as two DAU while an individual who plays the same game on two different devices is counted as one DAU. Average DAU is calculated as the average of the DAU for each day during the period presented. We use DAU as a measure of audience engagement to help us understand the size of the active player base engaged with our games on a daily basis.
Monthly Active Users (“MAUs”)
MAU is defined as the number of individuals who played a game in a particular month. As with DAU, an individual who plays two different games in the same month is counted as two MAU while an individual who plays the same game on two different devices is counted as one MAU. Average MAU is calculated as the average of MAU for each calendar month during the period presented. We use MAU as a measure of audience engagement to help us understand the size of the active player base engaged with our games on a monthly basis. 33
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Daily Paying Users (“DPU”)
DPU is defined as the number of individuals who made a purchase in a mobile game during a particular day. As with DAU and MAU, we track DPU based on account activity. As such, an individual who makes a purchase on two different games in a particular day is counted as two DPU while an individual who makes purchases in the same game on two different devices is counted as one DPU. Average DPU is calculated as the average of the DPU for each day during the period presented. We use DPU to understand the size of our active player base that makes in-game purchases. This focus directs our strategic goals in setting player acquisition and pricing strategy. Daily Payer Conversion Daily Payer Conversion is defined as DPU as a percentage of DAU on a particular day. Average Daily Payer Conversion is calculated as the average DPU divided by average DAU for a given period. We use Daily Payer Conversion to understand the monetization of our active players.
Average daily income per DAU (“ARPDAU”)
ARPDAU is defined for a given period as the average daily revenue per average DAU, and is calculated as game and advertising revenue for the period, divided by the number of days in the period, divided by the average DAU during the period. We use ARPDAU as a measure of overall monetization of our players.
Adjusted EBITDA (“AEBITDA”) and AEBITDA margin
Adjusted EBITDA, or AEBITDA, as used herein, is a non-GAAP financial performance measure that is presented as a supplemental disclosure and is reconciled to net income (loss) as the most directly comparable GAAP measure. We define AEBITDA as net income (loss) before interest, income taxes, depreciation and amortization, restructuring and related costs (consisting primarily of severance and other restructuring related costs), stock-based compensation expense, changes in fair value of warrant liabilities and other income and expense items (including special infrequent items, foreign currency gains and losses, and other non-cash items). We also use AEBITDA Margin, another non-GAAP measure, which we calculate as the percentage of AEBITDA to revenue. We use AEBITDA and AEBITDA Margin to monitor and evaluate the performance of our business operations, facilitate internal comparisons of our operating performance, and to analyze and evaluate decisions regarding future budgets and initiatives. We believe that both measures are useful because they provide investors with information regarding our operating performance that is used by our management in its reporting and planning processes. AEBITDA and AEBITDA Margin as calculated herein may not be comparable to similarly titled measures and disclosures reported by other companies. 34
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The following table sets forth the reconciliation of AEBITDA and AEBITDA Margin to net income (loss) and net income (loss) margin, the most directly comparable GAAP measure (in thousands, except percentages). Three Months Ended September 30, Nine Months Ended September 30, 2022 2021 2022 2021 Net income (loss)
$ 3,629 $ 11,236 $ (16,080) $ 10,119Depreciation & amortization 8,583 7,213 25,265 20,145 Income tax expense (1,763) (329) (6,186) (4,819) Stock-based compensation expense 3,554 833 13,563 3,680 Change in fair value of warrant liability (4,676) (11,876) (1,139) (11,986) Special infrequent(1) - - - 7,500 Restructuring and related(2) 796 2,303 10,969 2,379 Other (367) 267 (213) 546 AEBITDA 9,757 9,647 26,179 27,564 GAAP Revenue 72,127 70,571 210,931 215,490 Margin as a % of revenue Net income (loss) margin 5.0 % 15.9 % (7.6) % 4.7 % AEBITDA margin 13.5 % 13.7 % 12.4 % 12.8 %
(1) Amounts published during the nine months ended
(2)Amounts reported during the three and nine months ended
September 30, 2021consist of severance-related costs and fees related to evaluating various merger and acquisition opportunities. Amounts reported during the three months ended September 30, 2022consist of fees related to potential mergers and acquisitions. Amounts reported during the nine months ended September 30, 2022consist of (i) non-cash impairment charge related to the suspension of Kingdom Boss development, (ii) fees related to evaluating various merger and acquisition opportunities, and (iii) fees related to the Tender Offer for the Warrants.
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